My links-page comprises

Links for the amateur
Links for the Professional and
Websites of colleagues and friends

Please let me know if you have any link, which should be added!

Links for the Amateur
FAQs - Sites with Frequently Asked Questions about Ozone and UV
Germar's FAQ
FAQ from the Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998
This is "the official" FAQ about ozone depletion jointly published by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission, and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
FAQ from the 1998 UNEP Assessment on Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion.
This FAQ complements the FAQ above but focuses on UV effects rather than ozone research.
The Internet FAQ Archive
Very comprehensive FAQ by Robert Parson, who is Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of the University of Colorado. The format is not very fancy but the contents are great.
Questions and Answers on Ozone Depletion from EPA
This FAQ is published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
Common Questions about Climate Change compiled by UNEP and WNO
This FAQ is jointly compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and is dedicated to climate change rather than UV radiation and
FAQ for Kids
Great FAQ for Kids about Earth Sciences from NASA

Educational sites
Lessons about ozone, UV and climate
An Electronic Textbook from NASA about Stratospheric Ozone
Most comprehensive resource about the ozone layer and its chemistry, solar UV radiation, circulation patterns in the stratosphere, chlorofluorocarbon and the antarctic ozone hole. This site is part of NASA's Studying Earth's Environment from space page, a educational site for high school and college instructors and students.
NASA's resource file for teachers and students.
Another site from NASA ...
Information about Ozone Depletion from EPA
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's page on ozone depletion.
UVB radiation - Definition and Characteristics (PDF-File)
A comprehensive introduction to solar UVB radiation compiled by James H. Gibson from the the United States Department of Agriculture UVB Monitoring Program
A Primer On Ozone Depletion
A comprehehensive introduction to atmospheric physics by the Environment Canada.
Information for Kids from NASA
Great site from NASA and the Exploratorium. Kids learn playfully about the atmosphere and the Earth.
Sunwise Stampede
A sun safety program fro zoo visitors administered by the San Diego State University Foundation.

The "UV-index"
The UV index is a vehicle to inform the public about UV-levels
UV-Index by EPA - the United States Environmental Protection Agency
Comprehensive explanation of the UV index and introduction to EPA's SunWise School Program
UV-Index prediction and measurement results from New Zealand
UV-Index page from New Zealand's National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research
Links about the UV Index
The UV-index is now established in many countries. Check the links-pages from EPA and New Zealands NIWA and find the listing for your country.

Last but not least ...
Curios about UV
Ultraviolet Detecting Beads in Assorted Colors
A simple UV detector. (Look for "Ultraviolet Detecting Products" on the site!)

Links for the Professional
Institutions administrating research and disseminating information

NSF - National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation is the main funding agency for scientific research in the US. NSF's Office of Polar Programs (OPP) organizes research in Antarctica (Unites States Antarctic Program), and in the Arctic. Also the UV monitoring network for polar regions I am working for is sponsored by NSF/OPP. Check out the images from Antarctica and the huge "related" and "external" links pages on the NSF/OPP site!
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Task of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration include weather forecast, climate research and monitoring, satellite operation, charting and navigation, oceanic research, and fisheries. A complete overview of all activites can be found here. A portal for ozone related issues is here.
CIESIN - Center for International Earth Science Information Network
CIESIN is a non-profit organization to provide Earth Science related information for scientists, policymakers, and the public. The Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) department of CIESIN provides information on stratospheric ozone and human health. The site is also home of the "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion 1998 Assessment," the latest issue on UV effects published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (The 1994 issue is here).
WMO - World Meteorological Organization
Under the auspices of WMO, many programs related to atmospheric monitoring are established, including the Global Atmosphere Watch program. WMO initiated also a Scientific Advisory Group (SAG) on UV Monitoring to coordinate UV science around the world. I am member of the SAG's subgroup dedicated to UV instruments and their specifications.
UNEP - Ozone Secretariat of the United Nations Environment Programme
Official site of the Secretariat to enforce the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer.
WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998
Executive Summary of the most recent Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion. This reference is the latest issue from a series of documents published every four years and dedicated to the status of the ozone layer. Over 300 international scientists from the developed and developing world (including myself :-) contributed to the preparation and review of the latest Assessment. The volume includes a FAQ-chapter about ozone (see above).
NASA - National Aeronautics & Space Administration
NASA provides thousands of webpages with information, easily accessible via "Search the NASA web" . NASA's "Destination: Earth" website contains also information about ozone and a compilation of satellites measuring ozone from space.

More about NASA's Earth Science activities can be found at the website of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, including a Fact Sheet about NASA's ozone studies.

USGCRP - United States Global Change Research Program
The USGCRP is a good starting point to find information about Global Change.
GCRIO - US Global Change Research Information Office
The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on global environmental change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change related educational resources on behalf of USGCRP (see above). GCRIO is implemented by CIESIN (also above).
Climate Ark - The Premier Climate Change News & Information Portal and Archive
Climate Ark is a resource for information about global climate change through reductions in carbon and other emissions, energy conservation, alternative energy sources and ending deforestation. The site includes powerful search tools and a daily updated press survey.
USARC - United States Antarctic Resource Center
The USARC, subdivision of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), maintains a comprehensive collection of Antarctic maps, charts, satellite images, and photographs produced by the United States and other member nations of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR).
ARCUS - Arctic Research Consortium of the United States
ARCUS has the goal to bring together all resources of the Arctic research community in a synergetic way.
Raytheon Polar Services
Raytheon Polar Services provides currently the logistics for Antarctic Research.
VECO - Valued Engineering Construction Operations
VECO provides support and logistical services to scientists funded for work in the Arctic.
Directory of Polar and Cold Regions Organizations
Comprehensive list of U.S. and international organizations with interests relating to the polar and cold regions.

Groups measuring UV radiation in the United States
National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network for Polar Regions
The network is operated by Biospherical Instruments, the company I am working for. Network locations include stations in Antarctica (McMurdo, South Pole, Palmer), South America (Ushuaia), San Diego, and Barrow Alaska.
USDA - US Department of Agriculture
The US Department of Agriculture's UVB Radiation Monitoring Program is part of the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES). The network is operated by Colorado State University.
EPA - Environment Protection Agency
The network of the Environment Protection Agency consists of several stations both in urban areas and National Parks that are equipped with Brewer spectrophotometers.
The Air Resources Laboratory from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates UV broadband sensors in its Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) program. Isis is a two-level, nested network, the first focuses on incoming radiation only. The second level includes both incoming and surface radiation balance measurements and constitutes the NOAA/SURFRAD network.
NOAA's SURFace RADiation network has the objective to support climate research with accurate, continuous, long-term measurements of the surface radiation budget over the United States.
The Solar & Thermal Atmospheric Radiation (STAR) group of NOAA's Climate Modeling and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) operates broadband instruments in Barrow, Alaska and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, among other sites. UV measurements conducted by CMDL/STAR are presented CMDL website provides also near-realtime information on the development of the ozone hole and animations of balloon ozone measurements at South Pole.
NOAA's Surface Radiation Research Branch (SRRB) operates in cooperation with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the USDA the Central Calibration and Test Facility for national UV monitoring instruments.
Smithonian Institute
The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) operates filter instruments measuring solar irradiance at locations in Maryland, Florida, Arizona, Hawaii, Utah, Indiana, and Colorado.
The Department of Energy (US) initiated the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program focusing on the processes that control solar and thermal infrared radiative transfer in the atmosphere and at the earth's surface.
SHEBA - Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
The SHEBA project is a coordinated project to investigate the role of arctic climate in global change.
NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCAR is one of the leading atmospheric research institutes in the world. NCARs Atmospheric Chemistry Division specializes in UV modeling and measurement of atmospheric actinic flux and photolysis frequencies (ARIM group).

UV measurements and research all over the world
This list of links focuses on institutes I was collaborating with and programs I was involved in.

Global UV Monitoring Page
Comprehensive compilation of UV monitoring sites around the world. Organizations and their activities in over 40 countries are briefly introduced. This site was established in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization.
WOUDC - World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre
The WOUDC data center is part of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme initiated by the World Meteorological Organization (see above).
SUVDAMA - Scientific UV Data Management
SUVDAMA includes 18 institutes in 12 European countries involved in UV measurements and modeling. The overall goal of the project is to initiate a scientific interpretation of the existing ground based spectral UV measurements in Europe on the basis of an improved understanding of the radiative transfer processes. When I was working at IFU I was involved in the launch of this project.
UVRAPPF - UV Radiation in the Arctic, Past, Present and Future
UVRAPPF is another European projected funded by the European Commission and focuses on UV in the Arctic.
NDSC - Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change
NDSC is a set of high-quality remote-sounding research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the stratosphere including ozone and key ozone-related chemical compounds. UV measurements are now also part of NDSC activities.
UVNET - Thematic Network for Ultraviolet Measurements
UVNET serves as a forum for information exchange about UV-related issues. The EC funded project involves people from very diverse fields including industry, standards laboratories, and science.
UV-group of the Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research
Website of of my previous work-group in Germany.
NIWA - National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research in Lauder, New Zealand
NIWA is one of the world's leading institutes in atmospheric research and operates UV spectroradiometers in New Zealand and Hawaii. The website includes a lot of information on UV radiation plus a comprehensive list of UV-related links . I had (and have) extensive collaboration with staff from NIWA leading to several joint publications.
FMI - Finnish Meteorological Institute
FMI houses the websites of several European UV projects including SUVDAMA, UVRAPPF (see below), MAUVE (Mapping of UV by Europe), NOGIC-93 (The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izana from 24 October to 5 November 1993), and SUSPEN (Standardisation of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometry in Preparation of a European Network).
Meteorological Institute of the University Munich
The Meteorological Institute of the University Munich (MIM) developed the radiative transfer model STAR (System for Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation). There are many links on this websites to German universities, meteorology organizations, and research institutes.

Satellites measuring total ozone column
TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment
TOMS flew onboard of various satellites (current satellite is "Earth Probe") and provides total column ozone data with almost global coverage.
GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment
GOME was launched on April 21, 1995, on board the second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2). This instrument can measure a range of atmospheric trace constituents, with the emphasis on global ozone distributions.
SBUV/2 - Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet
NOAA's SBUV/2 is instrument is flying onboard the NOAA-11 satellite. Global ozone images are provided daily.
TOVS - TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder
NOAA's TOVS instrument does not rely upon backscattered solar radiation to determine atmospheric ozone but uses infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface. The accuracy of TOVS ozone data is less than of data from TOMS or GOME, however, data is also available in the Earth's shadow or Polar Night regions.
ATOVS - Advances TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder
NOAA's ATOVS satellites are successors of TOVS. There are currently two satellite system, called A1 and A2. The A1 is the operational system with latest changes. A2 is the test/parallel system.

Models to calculate surface UV radiation
libRadtran - Library for Radiative Transfer
LibRadtran is a freely available collection of C and Fortran functions and programs for calculation of UV and visible radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. The model was developed by my colleagues Arve Kylling and Bernhard Mayer (see below).
TUV - Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Radiation Model
The TUV model was developed at the National Center of Atmospheric Research (see above).
STAR - System for Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation
STAR was developed to model radiation quantities and photolysis frequencies in the troposphere.
MODTRAN - Moderate Resolution Transmittance
The MODTRAN code calculates atmospheric transmittance and radiance for frequencies from 0 to 50,000 1/cm at moderate spectral resolution.
FASTRT - Fast radiation transfer modelling
Online radiative transfer model based on Look-Up Tables that were calculated with RADTRAN.
SBDART - Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer
SBDART is a FORTRAN computer code designed for the analysis of a wide variety of radiative transfer problems encountered in satellite remote sensing and atmospheric energy budget studies.

Scientific Journals
American Geophysical Union
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) publishes, amongst others, Geophysical Research Letters (GRL) and the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). Abstracts of articles, which were accepted by AGU but are not published yet can be found here.
Optical Society of America
The Optical Society of America publishes Applied Optics. The website houses also a huge optics related bibliography, including a UV-B and ozone depletion bibliography with more than 3632 listings compiled by William B. Grant.
American Society of Photobiology
The American Society of Photobiology (ASP) publishes Photochemistry and Photobiology.
National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs
NSF's Office of Polar Programs publishes the Antarctic Journal of the United States and Artic Research of the United States .

Websites of Colleagues and Friends
Bernhard Mayer
... is both a colleague and friend. He specializes on the modelling of UV radiation and is currently developing a 3D Monte Carlo Model. Also check out the webpage of Edeltraud Leibrock, Bernhard's girl friend.
Gunther Seckmeyer
... was the former head of the UV-group of the Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research. He is now a Professor at the University of Hannover, Germany, at the Institute for Meteorology and Climatology.
Pedro Aphalo
Pedro Aphalo is a plant photobiology and physiological ecology researcher working for the University of Joensuu, Finland. He has compiled a nice UV links page.

Gallerie Jaud
Website of my good friend Alexander Jaud who operates an art gallery in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. He always has the most up-to-date links-page about my hometown. Alex is also an attorney at law. Visit the website of his office, "The Advocatenhaus"!
Bettenhaus Hillenmeyer
Website of Markus Elser, another good friend who runs the largest bedding store in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
Tulip field Gilching
Website of my friend Andreas Vogler. Although he is an astronomer, he decided recently to grow tulips ...
Robert Kormann
Robert Kormann specializes in the measurement of atmospheric trace gases and was working with me at the Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Research in Germany. He is now with the Max-Planck-Institut for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany